Health Library

SPIRULINA SCIENTIFIC REFERENCE LIBRARY
Over 100 references covering 30 years of international research.

(This library is solely for education. It is not intended as medical advice or as a guide for self-treatment.
Consult a qualified health care practitioner for diagnosis or treatment of any disease or medical condition.)

Click on the health category below to view scientific abstracts or summary.


REFERENCES AND ABSTRACTS BY HEALTH CATEGORY


ANTI-VIRAL ACTIVITY

  • Inhibition of HIV-1 replication by an aqueous extract of spirulina platensis (arthrospira platensis). by Ayehunie S., Belay A. et al. Pub. in Journal of Acquired Immune deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology 18:7-12. 1998. USA.
  • Calcium Spirulan, an inhibitor of enveloped virus replication, from a blue-green alga Spirulina. by Hayashi et al. 1996. Pub. in Journal of Natural Products, 59, 83-87. Japan.
  • An extract from spirulina is a selective inhibitor of herpes simples virus Type 1. by Hayashi et al. 3. Japan.
    Antiviral activity of blue-green algae cultures. by Patterson. Pub. in Journal of Phycology 29, 125-130. USA.
  • AIDS Antiviral sulfolipids from cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). by K. Gustafson, et al. 1989. Pub. in Journal of the National Cancer Institute, August 16, 1989, pg 1254. USA.

ANTI-CANCER STUDIES

  • Evaluation of chemoprevention of oral cancer with spirulina. by Babu, M. et al. 1995. Pub. in Nutrition and Cancer, Vol. 24, No. 2, 197-202. India.
  • Inhibitive effect and mechanism of polysaccharide of spirulina on transplanted tumor cells in mice. by Lisheng, et al. 1991. Pub. in Marine Sciences, Qingdao, N.5. pp 33-38. China.
  • Enhancement of endonuclease activity and repair DNA synthesis by polysaccharide of spirulina. by Qishen, P. et al. 1988. Pub. in Chinese Genetics Journal, 15 (5) 374-381. China.
  • Inhibition of experimental oral carcinogenesis by topical beta carotene. by Schwartz, et al. 1986. Harvard School of Dental Medicine. Pub. in Carcinogenesis, May 1986 7(5) 711-715. USA.
  • Prevention of experimental oral cancer by extracts of spirulina-dunaliella algae. by J. Schwartz, G. Shklar, et al. 1988. Harvard School of Dental Medicine. Pub. in Nutrition and Cancer, 11, 127-134. 1988. USA.

BETA CAROTENE AND CANCER PREVENTION

  • Bioavailability of spirulina carotenes in preschool children. by V. Annapurna, et al. 1991. National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, India. J. Clin. Biochem Nutrition. 10 145-151. India.
  • Large scale nutritional supplementation with spirulina alga. by C.V. Seshadri. 1993. All India Coordinated Project on Spirulina. Shri Amm Murugappa Chettiar Research Center (MCRC) Madras, India.
  • Inhibition of experimental oral carcinogenesis by topical beta carotene. by Schwartz, et al. 1986. Harvard School of Dental Medicine. Pub. in Carcinogenesis, May 1986 7(5) 711-715. USA.
  • Prevention of experimental oral cancer by extracts of spirulina-dunaliella algae. by J. Schwartz, G. Shklar, et al. 1988. Harvard School of Dental Medicine. Pub. in Nutrition and Cancer, 11, 127-134. 1988. USA.

CHOLESTEROL REDUCTION

  • Cholesterol lowering effect of spirulina. by N. Nayaka, et al. 1988. Tokai Univ. Pub. in Nutrition Reports Int’l, Vol. 37, No. 6, 1329-1337. Japan.
  • Clinical and biochemical evaluations of spirulina with regard to its application in the treatment of obesity. by E.W. Becker, et al. 1986. Inst. Chem. Pfanz. Pub. in Nutrition Reports Int’l, Vol. 33, No. 4, pg 565. Germany.
  • Effects of spirulina on hypercholesterolemia and fatty liver in rats. by T. Kato and K. Takemoto. 1984. Saitama Medical College. Pub. in Japan Nutr. Foods Assoc. Journal. 37:323. Japan.
  • Effects of spirulina on plasma lipoprotein lipase activity in rats. by K. Iwata. 1990. Pub. in Journal Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. 36:165-171. Japan.
  • Hypocholesterolemic effect of blue-green algae spirulina spirulina in albino rats. by M.A. Devi and L.V. Venkataraman. 1983. Pub. in Nutrition Reports Int’l, 28:519-530. India.
  • The effect of spirulina on reduction of serum cholesterol. by N. Nayaka, et al. 1986. Tokai Univ. Pub. in Progress in Medicine, Vol. 36, No. 11. Japan.

DIABETES AND HYPERTENSION REDUCTION

  • Effect of water soluble and water insoluble fractions of spirulina over serum lipids and glucose resistance of rats. by Y. Takai, et al. 1991. Pub. in J. Japan Soc. Nutr. Food Science, 44:273-277. Japan.
  • Effects of spirulina on plasma lipoprotein lipase activity in rats. by K. Iwata, et al. 1990. Pub. in Journal Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol, 36:165-171. Japan.

FOOD AND NUTRITION

  • Spirulina – Production & Potential. by Ripley D. Fox. 1996. Pub. by Editions Edisud, La Calade, R.N.7, 13090 Aix-en-Province, France.
  • Algoculture: Spirulina, hope for a hungry world. by Ripley D. Fox. 1986. Pub. by Edisud, Aix-en-Province, France (in French).
  • Current knowledge on potential health benefits of spirulina. by Amha Belay and Yoshimichi Ota. 1993. Pub. in Journal of Appl. Phycology, 5:235-241. USA.
  • Health Benefits of Spirulina. by Denise Fox. 1993. In Spirulina, Algae of Life. April 1993. Bulletin No. 12. Pub. by Institute Oceanographique, Monaco.
  • Large scale nutritional supplementation with spirulina alga. by C.V. Seshadri. 1993. All India Coordinated Project on Spirulina. Shri Amm Murugappa Chettiar Research Center (MCRC) Madras, India.
  • Microalgae as Food and Supplement. by Robert A. Kay. 1991. In Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutr. 30(6):555-573. Pub. by CRC Press. USA.
  • Spirulina: a model for microalgae as human food. by Alan Jassby. 1988. In Algae and Human Affairs. edited by Lembi and Waaland. Pub. by Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Spirulina, the edible organism. by Orio Ciferri. 1983. In Microbiological Reviews.Dec 1983. 551-578. Italy.

GLYCOLIPIDS AND SULFOLIPIDS

  • Antiviral activity of blue-green algae cultures. by Patterson. Pub. in Journal of Phycology 29, 125-130. USA.
  • AIDS Antiviral sulfolipids from cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). by K. Gustafson, et al. 1989. Pub. in Journal of the National Cancer Institute, August 16, 1989, pg 1254. USA.
  • Biotechnology & Utilization of Algae: The Indian Experience. by L.V. Venkataraman and E.W. Becker. 1985. Pub. by Sharada Press. Pg 114-115. Mangalore, India.
  • Glycolipids isolated from spirulina. by N. Kataoka, et al. 1983. Pub. in Agric. Biol. Chem. 47(10), 2349-2355. Japan.

HEMATOPOIESIS AND IMMUNOMODULATION

  • Effects of polysaccharide and phycocyanin from spirulina on peripheral blood and hematopoietic system of bone marrow in mice. by Zhang Cheng-Wu, et al.. April 1994. Nanjing Univ. China. Pub. in Proc. of Second Asia Pacific Conf. on Algal Biotech. Univ. of Malaysia. p.58. China.
  • Enhancement of antibody production in mice by dietary spirulina. by Hayashi, et al. June 1994. Kagawa Nutrition Univ. Japan. Pub. in Journal of Nutr. Science and Vitaminology. Japan.
  • Phagocytic potential of feline macrophages after exposure to a water soluble extract of spirulina in vitro. by M. Qureshi, et al. January 1996. Pub. in Immunopharmacology. in press. USA.
  • Spirulina extracts enhances chicken macrophage functions after in vitro exposure. by M. Qureshi, et al. 1995. Pub. in Jour. Nutritional Immunology, No. 3 (4) 35-45. USA.
  • Immune enhancement potential of spirulina in chickens. by M. Qureshi, et al. August 1994. Poultry Science Assoc. Dept. of Poultry Science, North Carolina State, NC. Pub. in Journal of Poultry Science Vol 73, S.1. p. 46. USA.
  • Immunomodulary effects of spirulina supplementation in chickens. by M. Qureshi, et al. May 1995. North Carolina State. Pub. in Proc. of 44th Western Poultry Disease Conference, pp 117-120. USA.
  • Immunostimulating activity of lipopolysaccharides from blue-green algae. by L. Besednova, et al. 1979. Pub. in Zhurnal Mikrobiologii, Epidemiologii, Immunobiologii, 56(12) pp 75-79. Russia.
  • Means to normalize the levels of immunoglobulin E, using the food supplement Spirulina. by L. Evets, et al. 1994. Grodenski State Medical Univ. Russian Federation Committee of Patents and Trade. Patent (19)RU (11)2005486. Jan. 15, 1994. Russia.
  • Radioprotective effect of extract from spirulina in mouse bone marrow cells studied by using the micronucleus test. by P. Qishen, Kolman et al. 1989. In Toxicology Letters 48: 165-169. China.
  • Study on effect and mechanism of polysaccharides of spirulina on body immune function improvement. by G. Baojiang, et al. April 1994. South China Normal Univ. China. Pub. in Proc. of Second Asia Pacific Conf. on Algal Biotech. Univ. of Malaysia. pp 33-38. China.
  • Immune response activation in channel catfish ictaluras punctatus fed spirulina enriched artemia. by B. Portoni et al. 1996. American Fisheries Society Fish Health Section. USA.

IRON BIOAVAILABILITY AND PREVENTION OF ANEMIA

  • Availability of iron to rats from spirulina, a blue-green algae. by P. Johnson and E. Shubert. 1986. Pub. in Nutrition Research Vol 6, 85-94. USA.
  • Influence of extensive training on the number of erythrocytes and hemoglobin level and its correction. by Z. Trojacanec et al. 1998. Skopje, Macedonia. Pub in XXIV FIMS World Congress of Sports Medicine, June 1998.
  • Clinical experiences of administration of spirulina to patients with hypochronic anemia. by T. Takeuchi, et al. 1978. Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. Japan.
  • Iron transfer from spirulina to blood in rats. by K. Takemoto, et al. 1982. Saitama Medical College. Japan.

KIDNEY AND LIVER DETOXIFICATION

  • Effect of chlorella, spirulina and chlorophyllin on fecal excretion of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins in rats. by K. Morita, et al. Pub. in Japan Journal Toxicology Environ. Health. 43 (1) 42-47 1997. Japan.
  • Effect of spirulina on the renal toxicity induced by inorganic mercury and cisplatin. by H. Fukino, et al. 1990. Pub. in Eisei Kagaku, 36:5, 1990. Japan.
  • The effect of spirulina on nephrotoxicity in rats. by Y. Yamane, et al. 1988. Chiba Univ. Presented at Annual Symposium of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan, April 15, 1988. Japan.

LACTOBACILLUS IMPROVEMENT

  • Effects of spirulina on caecum content in rats. by Y. Tokai, et al. 1987. Chiba Hygiene College Bulletin. Feb. 1987 Vol. 5, No. 2. Japan.

MALNUTRITION RECOVERY

  • Spirulina – Production & Potential. by Ripley D. Fox. 1996. Pub. by Editions Edisud, La Calade, R.N.7, 13090 Aix-en-Province, France.
  • Algoculture: Spirulina, hope for a hungry world. by Ripley D. Fox. 1986. Pub. by Edisud, Aix-en-Province, France (in French).
  • Clinical experimentation with spirulina. by R. Ramos Galvan. 1973. National Institute of Nutrition, Mexico City, Mexico (in Spanish).
  • Current knowledge on potential health benefits of spirulina. by Amha Belay and Yoshimichi Ota. 1993. In Journal of Appl. Phycology, 5:235-241. USA.
  • Effectiveness of spirulina algae as food for children with protein-energy malnutrition in a tropical environment. by P. Bucaille. 1990. University Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France. Oct. 1990. Zaire. (in French).
  • Food value of spirulina in humans. by C. Sautier and J. Tremolieres. 1976. Pub. in Ann. Nutrition Alim., 30:517-534. France (in French).
  • Health Benefits of Spirulina. by Denise Fox. 1993. In Spirulina, Algae of Life. April 1993. Bulletin No. 12. Pub. by Institute Oceanographique, Monaco.
  • Large scale nutritional supplementation with spirulina alga. by C.V. Seshadri. 1993. All India Coordinated Project on Spirulina. Shri Amm Murugappa Chettiar Research Center (MCRC) Madras, India.
  • Observations on the utilization of spirulina as an adjuvant nutritive factor in treating some diseases accompanied by a nutritional deficiency. by V. Fica, et al. 1984. Clinica II Medicala, Spitalui Clinic, Bucuresti. Med. Interna 36 (3). Romania. (in Romanian).
  • Spirulina in Jiangxi China. by Miao Jian Ren. 1987. Academy of Agricultural Science. Presented at Soc. Appl. Algology, Lille France Sep. 1987. China.
  • The study on curative effect of zinc containing spirulina for zinc deficient children. by Wen Yonghuang, et al. 1994. Capital Medical College, Beijing. Presented at 5th Int’l Phycological Congress, Qingdao, June 1994. China.

PHYCOCYANIN AND IMMUNE SYSTEM IMPROVEMENT

  • Antitumoral agents containing phycobilin- also used to treat ulcers and hemorrhoidal bleeding. by Dainippon Ink & Chemicals and Tokyo Kenkyukai. 1983. Patent 58065216 A 830418. Japan.
  • Effect of spirulina on the renal toxicity induced by inorganic mercury and cisplatin. by H. Fukino, et al. 1990. Pub. in Eisei Kagaku, 36:5, 1990. Japan.
  • Effects of polysaccharide and phycocyanin from spirulina on peripheral blood and hematopoietic system of bone marrow in mice. by Zhang Cheng-Wu, et al.. April 1994. Nanjing Univ. China. Pub. in Proc. of Second Asia Pacific Conf. on Algal Biotech. Univ. of Malaysia. China.

POLYSACCHARIDES AND IMMUNE SYSTEM IMPROVEMENT

  • Calcium Spirulan, an inhibitor of enveloped virus replication, from a blue-green alga Spirulina. by Hayashi et al. 1996. Pub. in Journal of Natural Products, 59, 83-87. Japan.
  • An extract from spirulina is a selective inhibitor of herpes simples virus Type 1. by Hayashi et al. 1993. Japan.
  • Effects of polysaccharide and phycocyanin from spirulina on peripheral blood and hematopoietic system of bone marrow in mice. by Zhang Cheng-Wu, et al.. April 1994. Nanjing Univ. China. Pub. in Proc. of Second Asia Pacific Conf. on Algal Biotech. Univ. of Malaysia. p.58. China.
  • Enhancement of antibody production in mice by dietary spirulina. by Hayashi, et al. June 1994. Kagawa Nutrition Univ. Japan. Pub. in Journal of Nutr. Science and Vitaminology. Japan.
  • Immune enhancement potential of spirulina in chickens. by M. Quereshi, et al. August 1994. Poultry Science Assoc. Dept. of Poultry Science, North Carolina State, NC. Pub. in Journal of Poultry Science Vol 73, S.1. p. 46. USA.
  • Immunomodulary effects of spirulina supplementation in chickens. by M. Qureshi, et al. May 1995. North Carolina State. Pub. in Proc. of 44th Western Poultry Disease Conference, pp 117-120. USA.
  • Immunostimulating activity of lipopolysaccharides from blue-green algae. by L. Besednova, et al. 1979. Pub. in Zhurnal Mikrobiologii, Epidemiologii, Immunobiologii, 56(12) pp 75-79. Russia.
  • Inhibitive effect and mechanism of polysaccharide of spirulina on transplanted tumor cells in mice. by Lisheng, et al. 1991.Pub. in Marine Sciences, Qingdao, N.5. pp 33-38. China.
  • Radioprotective effect of extract from spirulina in mouse bone marrow cells studied by using the micronucleus test. by P. Qishen, Kolman et al. 1989. In Toxicology Letters 48: 165-169. China.
  • Study on effect and mechanism of polysaccharides of spirulina on body immune function improvement. by G. Baojiang, et al. April 1994. South China Normal Univ. China. Pub. in Proc. of Second Asia Pacific Conf. on Algal Biotech. Univ. of Malaysia. pp 33-38. China.
  • Enhancement of endonuclease activity and repair DNA synthesis by polysaccharide of spirulina. by Qishen, P. et al. 1988. Pub. in Chinese Genetics Journal, 15 (5) 374-381. China.

RADIATION PROTECTIVE EFFECT AND IMMUNE SYSTEM IMPROVEMENT

  • Means to normalize the levels of immunoglobulin E, using the food supplement Spirulina. by L. Evets, et al. 1994. Grodenski State Medical Univ. Russian Federation Committee of Patents and Trade. Patent (19)RU (11)2005486. Jan. 15, 1994. Russia.
  • Radioprotective effect of extract from spirulina in mouse bone marrow cells studied by using the micronucleus test. by P. Qishen, Kolman et al. 1989. In Toxicology Letters 48: 165-169. China.
  • Spirulina- natural sorbent of radionucleides. by L.P. Loseva and I.V. Dardynskaya. Sep 1993. Research Institute of Radiation Medicine, Minsk, Belarus. 6th Int’l Congress of Applied Algology, Czech Republic. Belarus.
  • Spirulina platensis and specialties to support detoxifying pollutants and to strengthen the immune system. by L.P. Loseva. Sep 1999. Research Institute of Radiation Medicine, Minsk, Belarus. 8th Int’l Congress of Applied Algology, Italy. Belarus.