Spirulina scientific reference library. Over 100 references covering 45 years of international research.
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Review for uses and therapeutic effects of spirulina.
by Mansoreh Ghaen et al. Pub. in Global Journal on Advances in Pure & Applied Sciences Vol 4 (2014) 365-371. 2014. Turkey.

Spirulina is a filamentous cyanobacteria with many applications in food and drug industries, as a food in human, aquaculture, vet and poultry industries. Semi and mass culture of Spirulina carries out in different countries. it contains large amounts of protein (70% dry weight), carotenoid (4000 mg/kg), (omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids ,gamma linolenic acid (GLA), sulfolipids, glycolipids, polysaccharides, provitamins; vitamin A vitamin E, various B vitamins; and minerals, including calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, zinc and selenium. Pre-clinical and clinical studies suggest that Spirulina has certain therapeutic effects such as reduction in blood cholesterol, protection against some cancers, enhancement of the immune system, increase of intestinal lactobacilli, reduction of nephrotoxicity by heavy metals and drugs, radiation protection, reduction of hyperlipidemia and obesity. In this paper, uses and therapeutic effect of spirulina have been reviewed according to new researches.

Nutritional and Therapeutic Potential of Spirulina.
by Zakir Khan et al. Pub. in Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, 2005, 6, 373-379. India.

Spirulina possesses diverse biological activities and nutritional significance due to high concentration of natural nutrients, having bio-modulatory and immuno-modulatory functions. Different Spirulina preparations influence immune system viz. increase phagocytic activity of macrophages, stimulating the production of antibodies and cytokines, increase accumulation of NK cells into tissue and activation and mobilization of T and B cells. Spirulina have also shown to perform regulatory role on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism by exhibiting glucose and lipid profile correcting activity in experimental animals and in diabetic patients. Preparations have been found to be active against several enveloped viruses including herpes virus, cytomegalovirus, influenza virus and HIV. They are capable to inhibit carcinogenesis due to anti-oxidant properties that protect tissues and also reduce toxicity of liver, kidney and testes.

Current knowledge on potential health benefits of spirulina.
by Amha Belay, Yoshimichi Ota, Kazuyuki Miyakawa and Hidenori Shimamatsu. 1993. Pub. in Journal of Applied Phycology, 5:235-241. USA.

Spirulina is a microscopic filamentous alga that is rich in proteins, vitamins, essential amino acids, minerals and essential fatty acids like gammma-linolenic acid (GLA). It is produced commercially and sold as a food supplement in health food stores around the world. Up to very recently, the interest in Spirulina was mainly in its nutritive value. Currently, however, numerous people are looking into the possible therapeutic effects of Spirulina. Many pre-clinical studies and a few clinical studies suggest several therapeutic effects ranging from reduction of cholesterol and cancer to enhancing the immune system, increasing intestinal lactobacilli, reducing nephrotoxicity by heavy metals and drugs and radiation pro­tection. This paper presents a critical review of some published and some unpublished data on therapeutic effects of spirulina.

Health Benefits of Spirulina.
by Denise Fox. 1993. In Spirulina, Algae of Life. April 1993. Bulletin No. 12. Pub. by Institute Oceanographique, Monaco.