Spirulina scientific reference library. Over 100 references covering 45 years of international research. Click on PDF Download button for free pdf file.

Spirulina Protects against Hepatic Inflammation in Aging: An Effect Related to the Modulation of the Gut Microbiota? by Audrey M. Neyrinck et al. Pub. in Nutrients Jun 2017. Belgium.

Aging predisposes to hepatic dysfunction and inflammation that can contribute to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Spirulina, a cyanobacterium used as a food additive or food supplement, has been shown to impact immune function. We have tested the potential hepatoprotective effect of a Spirulina in aged mice and to determine whether these effects can be related to a modulation of the gut microbiota. Old mice have been fed a standard diet supplemented with or without 5% Spirulina for six weeks. Among several changes of gut microbiota composition, an increase in Roseburia and Lactobacillus proportions occurs upon Spirulina treatment. Interestingly, parameters related to the innate immunity are upregulated in the small intestine of Spirulina-treated mice. Furthermore, the supplementation with Spirulina reduces several hepatic inflammatory and oxidative stress markers that are upregulated in old mice versus young mice. We conclude that the oral administration of a Spirulina is able to modulate the gut microbiota and to activate the immune system in the gut, a mechanism that may be involved in the improvement of the hepatic inflammation in aged mice. Those data open the way to new therapeutic tools in the management of immune alterations in aging, based on gut microbe-host interactions.

Spirulina, Aging, and Neurobiology. by Jennifer Vila et al. Pub. in Spirulina in Human Nutrition and Health ed. by Belay, Amha and Gershwin M.E. CRC Press, Boca Raton FL. 2008. p 277. USA.

Diets Enriched in Foods with High Antioxidant Activity Reverse Age-Induced Decreases in Cerebellar -Adrenergic Function and Increases in Proinflammatory Cytokines. by Carmelina Gemma et al. Pub. in he Journal of Neuroscience, July 15, 2002, 22(14):6114–6120. USA.

Antioxidants and diets supplemented with foods high in oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) reverse age-related decreases in cerebellar -adrenergic receptor function. We examined whether this effect was related to the antioxidant capacity of the food supplement and whether an antioxidant-rich diet reduced the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the cerebellum. Aged male Fischer 344 rats were given apple (5 mg dry weight), spirulina (5 mg), or cucumber (5 mg) either in 0.5 ml water by oral gavage or supplied in the rat chow daily for 14 d. Electrophysiologic techniques revealed a significant decrease in -adrenergic receptor function in aged control rats. Spirulina reversed this effect. Spirulina and apple significantly downregulated this age-related increase in proinflammatory cytokines, suggesting that one mechanism by which these diets work is by modulation of an age-related increase in inflammatory responses. Malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured as a marker of oxidative damage. Apple and spirulina decreased MDA levels in the aged rats. In summary, the improved -adrenergic receptor function in aged rats induced by diets rich in antioxidants is related to the ORAC dose, and these diets reduce proinflammatory cytokine levels.