Cardiovascular Health and Cholesterol Reduction

REFERENCES AND ABSTRACTS BY HEALTH CATEGORY
Spirulina scientific reference library. Over 100 references covering 45 years of international research. Click on PDF Download button for free pdf file.


Hypolipidemic, Antioxidant, and Antiinflammatory Activities of Microalgae Spirulina. by Ruitang Deng & Te-Jin Chow. Tokai Univ. Pub. in Cardiovascular Therapeutics 28 (2010) e33–e45. 2010. USA, Taiwan.

With its high nutritional value, Spirulina has been consumed as food for centuries in Central Africa. It is now widely used as nutraceutical food supplement worldwide. Recently, great attention and extensive studies have been devoted to evaluate its therapeutic benefits on an array of diseased conditions including hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycerolemia, cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory diseases, cancer, and viral infections. The cardiovascular benefits of Spirulina are primarily resulted from its hypolipidemic, antioxidant, and antiinflammatory activities. Data from preclinical studies with various animal models consistently demonstrate the hypolipidemic activity of Spirulina. The findings from human clinical trials are largely consistent with the hypolipidemic effects of Spirulina observed in the preclinical studies. The antioxidant and/or antiinflammatory activities of Spirulina were demonstrated in a large number of preclinical studies. A limited number of clinical trials have been carried out so far to confirm such activities in human. Currently, our understanding on the underlying mechanisms for Spirulina’s activities, especially the hypolipidemic effect, is limited. Spirulina is generally considered safe for human consumption supported by its long history of use as food source and its favorable safety profile in animal studies.


Antihyperlipemic and antihypertensive effects of Spirulina in an open sample of Mexican population. by Patricia V Torres-Duran, et al. Pub. Lipids in Health and Disease, 2007, 6:33 doi:10.1186/1476-511X-6-33. Mexico.

Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Spirulina maxima orally supplied (4.5 g/day, for 6 weeks) to a sample of 36 subjects (16 men and 20 women, with ages between 18–65 years) on serum lipids, glucose, aminotransferases and on blood pressure. The volunteers did not modify their dietary habits or lifestyle during the whole experimental period. From each subject, a sample of blood was drawn in fasting state of 12 hours to determi the plasma concentrations of glucose, triacylglycerols (TAG), total cholesterol (TC), cholesterol associated to high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Anthropometric measurements including systolic (SYST-P) and diastolic (DIAST-P) blood pressure, height, weight and Body Mass Index (BMI) were also recorded.
Conclusion: The Spirulina maxima showed a hypolipemic effect, especially on the TAG and the LDL-C concentrations but indirectly on TC and HDL-C values. It also reduces systolic and diastolic blood pressure.


Cholesterol lowering effect of spirulina.
by N. Nayaka, et al. 1988. Tokai Univ. Pub. in Nutrition Reports Int’l, Vol. 37, No. 6, 1329-1337. Japan.

Thirty healthy men with high cholesterol, mild hypertension and hyperlipidemia showed lower serum cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL (undesirable fat) levels after eating spirulina for eight weeks. These men did not change their diet, except adding spirulina. No adverse effects were noted. Group A consumed 4.2 grams daily for eight weeks. Total serum cholesterol dropped a significant 4.5% within 4 weeks from 244 to 233. Group B consumed spirulina for four weeks, then stopped. Serum cholesterol levels decreased, then returned to the initial level. Researchers concluded spirulina did lower serum cholesterol and was likely to have a favorable effect on alleviating heart disease since the arterioscelosis index improved.


Clinical and biochemical evaluations of spirulina with regard to its application in the treatment of obesity.
by E.W. Becker, et al. 1986. Inst. Chem. Pfanz. Pub. in Nutrition Reports Int’l, Vol. 33, No. 4, pg 565. Germany.


Effects of spirulina on hypercholesterolemia and fatty liver in rats.
by T. Kato and K. Takemoto. 1984. Saitama Medical College. Pub. in Japan Nutr. Foods Assoc. Journal. 37:323. Japan.

Rats fed basal diets containing 1% cholesterol showed elevated total cholesterol, and phospholipids in serum. This was clearly reduced by rats fed basal diets containing 16% spirulina and 1% cholesterol. The results indicated spirulina may prevent dietary hypercholesterolemia and arterioscelerosis. Fatty liver caused by high fat and high-cholesterol diets was also reduced rapidly by feeding spirulina.


Effects of spirulina on plasma lipoprotein lipase activity in rats.
by K. Iwata. 1990. Pub. in Journal Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. 36:165-171. Japan.

The effects of spirulina on lipoprotein lipase activity and hepatic triglyceride lipase activity in post-heparin plasma were studied in fructose-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Male Wistar rats aged 3 weeks old (body weight, 54g) were fed on the high-fructose diet (68%) or the high-fructose diets containing spirulina at the level of 5%, 10%, and 15%, respectively, for 4 weeks. The dietary hyperlipidemia caused by the high-fructose diet was improved by spirulina feeding, accompanied by a significant increase in the lipoprotein lipase activity in post-heparin plasma.


Hypocholesterolemic effect of blue-green algae spirulina spirulina in albino rats.
by M.A. Devi and L.V. Venkataraman. 1983. Pub. in Nutrition Reports Int’l, 28:519-530. India.


The effect of spirulina on reduction of serum cholesterol.
by N. Nayaka, et al. 1986. Tokai Univ. Pub. in Progress in Medicine, Vol. 36, No. 11. Japan.